Andrew Plotkin
The Dreamhold
Software: Inform;
web version is powered by Parchment, a JavaScript Z-code interpreter

W riter/programmer Andrew Plotkin is the author of a series of award-winning works of Interactive Fiction,(IF) including Shade, Spider and Web, and Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home. An integral member of the IF community, he also helps support the software tools that underlie contemporary IF.

Plotkin has worked on game design and game tools his entire life, though mostly outside of the game industry and academic worlds. With his recently released Hadean Lands, a complex Interactive Fiction that was four years in the making, he continues to pursue in his words "a (perhaps chimerical) career as a creator of narrative interaction on mobile platforms."

For content | code | process, he writes about The Dreamhold. A tutorial that is also a work of Interactive Fiction, The Dreamhold offers an excellent introduction to the experience of classic Interactive Fiction

In his words:

"I've tried to create a game which rewards many species of adventurer: the inexperienced newcomer, the puzzle-hurdler, the casual tourist, the meticulous explorer, the wild experimenter, the seeker after nuances and implications."

Winner, of the Best Use of Medium 2004 XYZZY Award, The Dreamhold presents the reader, as do most IFs, with prompts that require input in the form of traditional IF commands. The process -- mediated by software (the parser) that understands and responds to certain natural language instructions -- is continually interactive; the reader navigates the story by entering text phrases at the prompts; the story responds:

T his is a place in The Dreamhold, where a reader unfamiliar with Interactive Fiction may not know what to do. In response, a text-based Tutorial Voice offers advice, suggesting:

Teachers and students, who spend time with Andrew Plotkin's Interactive Fiction Page, will find that Plotkin, aka Zarf, has provided a card with introductory IF commands, as well as a free download for iPhone/iPad. The source code for The Dreamhold is also available. However, because plot details are revealed in the code, readers may wish to play the story first.

The web version of The Dreamhold is available at

Andrew Plotkin: - The Dreamhold

T he Dreamhold was my attempt to address the traditional accessibility problems of parser-based interactive fiction. Its goals were (1) to act as a tutorial for the IF parser; (2) to provide an old-fashioned adventure experience of exploration and puzzle-solving in a broad world; (3) to be narratively interesting. ...In that order.

The first goal conditioned much of the game design. In order to provide a simple starting environment, I had the player begin in an empty white cell with only one object available. The player is cued to read a description of common IF commands, and then try the most common ones -- "LOOK", "EXAMINE", "GO". Once the player manages to leave the cell, they are rewarded with a change from a spare environment to a lavish one; this provides an opportunity to exercise curiosity and delve into details. The player quickly runs into some locked doors, which are the first formal puzzle of the game. (Although newcomers might consider the parser to be the first puzzle of any IF game...) Passing a locked door gives access to the bulk of the map, with a range of challenges.

I wanted to introduce the player to IF conventions, even those that were (even at the time) considered old-fashioned or unnecessarily troublesome. Thus The Dreamhold has darkness, a "SCORE" command, a set of colored tokens to collect, bendy passages, a maze, (of sorts) and the possibility of death. On the other hand, in-game hints are available, and the game cannot be made unwinnable. (allowing for the option of "UNDO" after death). The possibility of irreversible mistakes is demonstrated with a single object -- the apple -- which does not affect any of the game's puzzles or endings.

O f course, I expected that many players would be long-time IF experts and fans of my earlier work. To satisfy such people, I included less obvious challenges and hidden endings, as well as an "EXPERT" mode (which disables hints and increases the difficulty of some puzzles). Infocom's Suspended inspired me to also add an "IMPOSSIBLE" mode, about which the less said the better.

The game experience deliberately invokes the qualities of my own earliest IF experiences. (Adventure and Zork) The player has many avenues for exploration, once out of the restricted early-game area. The impetus for play is curiosity and discovered challenges, not an explicit story goal. I have no reason to believe this approach is best for enticing a modern audience into IF. But, faced with the choice of crafting an appeal to people like me or people unlike me, I decided to stick with what I knew.

The game's setting was built around the trope of the mystical house, one of my favorite fantasy devices. (My current work-in-progress, Hadean Lands, uses the same theme.) The language and tone were inspired by the writing of Patricia McKillip, who has portrayed the wizard's-house in several of her own books. The narrative fragments which can be discovered are my own. These do not ultimately form a large part of the game experience, but they provide a narrative thread for players who feel the need for one.

I suspect that The Dreamhold has not attracted many new players into the IF field. Of my own works, it is less often cited than Shade or Spider and Web. However, it remains available as a path into the field.

Index to
content | code | process:

Judith Adele
Social Media Narrative:
Avatar Repertory Theater

Marcello Aitiani
Networked Projects
Ship of Light

Mark Amerika

Bill Bly

James J. Brown, Jr.
Social Media Narrative:
Social Media Harassment

Jay Bushman
Social Media Narrative:
The Lizzie Bennet Diaries

J. R. Carpenter
__ The Broadside of a Yarn
; __ Entre Ville
__ Chronicles of Pookie and JR

M.D. Coverley
__ Egypt: The Book of
Going Forth by Day

__ Tin Towns

Robert Edgar
Memory Theatre One

Robert Emmons
Social Media Narrative:

Caitlin Fisher

Chris Funkhouser

Joy Garnett
___Social Media Narrative:

Dene Grigar
__ 24-Hr. Micro-Elit
__ Social Media Narrative
__ Fallow Field

Fox Harrell

William Harris

Matt Held
___Social Media Narrative:
Facebook Paintings

Megan Heyward
__of day, of night
__The Secret Language of Desire

Adriene Jenik

Antoinette LaFarge
__ Demotic
Social Media Narrative

Deena Larsen
__ Marble Springs wiki
__Social Media Narrative
__ The Pines at Walden Pond

Judy Malloy

Mark C. Marino
Marginalia in the Library of Babel
and a show of hands

__Social Media Narrative:

Cathy Marshall
__Social Media Narrative
Who owns social media content?

María Mencía

Nick Montfort
__Nick Montfort and
Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between

Judd Morrissey

Karen O'Rourke

Nancy Paterson

Regina Pinto

Andrew Plotkin
__ Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home
__ The Dreamhold

Aaron Reed

Scott Rettberg

Chris Rodley
__Social Media Narrative
The Magic Realism Bot

Emily Short
__ Bronze

Nina Sobell
__ Work: 1977-1997

Chindu Sreedharan
__Social Media Narrative

Silvia Stoyanova and Ben Johnston
The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform

Stephanie Strickland
__Nick Montfort and Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between

Katrin Tiidenberg
__Social Media Narrative
Identity on Tumblr

Fred Truck

Eugenio Tisselli

Dan Waber

Marco Williams
The Migrant Trail

__Social Media Narrative
Rob Wittig - Netprov

Alice Wong
__Social Media Narrative


Mark Bernstein
__Interview with Mark Bernstein

Anna Couey and Judy Malloy
__Conversation about the Arts Wire Interactive Art Conference

Tom Klinkowstein
__Interview with Tom Klinkowstein

Stuart Moulthrop
__ Interview with
Stuart Moulthrop

Sonya Rapoport:
__Interview with
Sonya Rapoport